electric transfer chair | Introduction of wheelchair
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Wheelchair is an important tool for rehabilitation. It is not only a means of transportation for the physically disabled, but more importantly, it enables them to use the wheelchair to exercise and participate in social activities.
The structure of the wheelchair
Ordinary wheelchairs are generally composed of four parts: a wheelchair frame, wheels, brakes and a seat. The functions of the main components of the wheelchair are briefly described below.
1. The big wheels carry the main weight. The diameter of the wheel is 51, 56, 61, 66 cm. Except for a few use environment requirements and solid tires, pneumatic tires are mostly used.
2. Small wheels There are several kinds of diameters of 12, 15, 18, 20cm. Small wheels with large diameters are easy to overcome small obstacles and special carpets. However, the large diameter makes the space occupied by the entire wheelchair larger and it is inconvenient to move. The normal small wheel is before the big wheel, but in wheelchairs used by lower limb paraplegics, the small wheel is often placed behind the big wheel. It should be noted during operation that the direction of the small wheel should be perpendicular to the big wheel, otherwise it is easy to tip over.
3. The hand wheel rim is unique to wheelchairs, and its diameter is generally 5cm smaller than the large wheel rim. When hemiplegia is driven with one hand, add a smaller diameter for selection. The hand wheel is generally pushed directly by the patient. If the function is not good, it can be modified in the following ways for easy driving: (1) Add rubber on the surface of the hand wheel to increase the grinding force. (2) Add a push knob (knob) along the circumference of the hand wheel. There are the following types of push handles: ① Horizontal push handles. Used for C5 spinal injury. Therefore, the biceps muscles are healthy, and the hand is placed on the push handle, and the cart can move forward with the force of elbow flexion. If there is no horizontal push handle, it cannot be pushed. ② Push the handle vertically. For rheumatoid arthritis when the movement of the shoulder and hand joints is limited. Therefore, the horizontal push handle cannot be used. ③ Thick push handle. It is used for patients with severely restricted finger movement and difficult to make a fist. It is also suitable for patients with osteoarthritis, heart disease or elderly patients.
4. There are three types of tires: solid, inflatable tube and tubeless inflatable. The solid type walks faster on flat ground and is not easy to blast and is easy to push, but it vibrates greatly on uneven roads, and it is not easy to pull out when stuck in a groove that is the same width as the tire; with a pneumatic inner tube, it is more difficult to push and easy to puncture, but The vibration is smaller than that of a solid one; the inflatable tubeless type will not puncture because of the tubeless tube, and the interior is also inflated and comfortable to sit up, but it is more difficult to push than the solid one.
5. Brakes The big wheels should have a brake on each wheel. Of course, when a person with hemiplegia can only use one hand, he has to use one-hand brake, but extension rods can also be installed to control the brakes on both sides. There are two types of brakes: (1) Notch brakes. This brake is safe and reliable, but more laborious. After adjustment, it can also be braked on slopes. If it is adjusted to level 1 and cannot be braked on flat ground, it will be invalid. (2) Toggle brake. Using the principle of lever to brake through several joints, its mechanical advantage is stronger than that of a notch brake, but it fails faster. In order to increase the braking force of patients, extension rods are often added to the brakes, but this rod is easy to damage, if not checked frequently, it will affect safety.
6. The height, depth, and width of the chair seat depend on the patient's body type, and the texture of the material also depends on the type of disease. Generally, the depth is 41, 43cm, the width is 40, 46cm, and the height is 45, 50cm.
7. In order to avoid pressure sores, please pay attention to the cushion. It is possible to use eggcrate or Roto cushion as much as possible. This cushion is composed of a large piece of plastic with a large number of nipple-shaped plastic hollow columns with a diameter of about 5cm. Each column is soft and easy to move. After the patient sits, the pressure surface becomes a large number of pressure points, and the patient moves slightly, the pressure point changes with the movement of the nipple, so that the pressure point can be continuously changed. Avoid frequent pressure on the same area causing pressure sores. If there is no such cushion, a layered foam plastic should be used. Its thickness should be 10cm. The upper layer is 0.5cm thick high-density polyurethane foam, and the lower layer is medium-density plastic with the same properties. The density is strong, and the medium density is soft and comfortable. In the sitting position, the ischial tuberosity bears a lot of pressure, often exceeding the normal capillary end pressure by 1 to 16 times, and it is prone to ischemia to form pressure sores. In order to avoid excessive pressure here, often dig out a piece of the corresponding mat to make the ischial tuberosity overhead. When digging, the front should be 2.5cm in front of the ischial tuberosity, and the side should be 2.5cm outside the tuberosity. The depth is about 7.5cm, the cushion is concave after digging, and the notch is behind. If the above cushion is used to add an incision, it can be quite effective to prevent the occurrence of pressure sores.
8. Foot rest and leg rest The leg rest can be of the type that spans both sides, or the two sides are separated, both of which can be swayed to one side and can be detached as the most ideal. You must pay attention to the height of the foot rest. If the foot rest is too high, the hip flexion angle will be too large, and the weight will be added to the ischial tuberosity, which is easy to cause pressure sores.
9. Backrest The backrest can be high or low and can be tilted or not. If the patient has better balance and control of the torso, a low-back wheelchair can be used to enable the patient to have greater mobility. Conversely, choose a high-back wheelchair.
10. Armrests or arm rests are generally 22.5~25cm higher than the seat surface, and some arm rests can be adjusted in height. A lap board can also be placed on the arm rest for reading and dining.